A second major promotion of kudzu came in 1884 in the Japanese pavilion … I was in no uncertain terms told that it was very illegal to plant it. Kudzu Blossom Jelly – For a beautifully colored, tasty jelly, try, Kudzu Pudding â€“ For a delicious dessert, try. Kudzu leaves are huge, sometimes growing to be seven or eight inches long! It is illegal to plant or sell Kudzu in Illinois. For maximum effect, it may be necessary to fence livestock within the area being treated and to provide water and supplemental feed as needed for animal nutrition. Revegetation of sites following treatment is an important last step to ensure that any residual kudzu does not reestablish. Raw – You can eat raw kudzu leaves just like you would eat salad greens. But there is hope! Cloth for Clothing â€“ Interestingly, this vine can also be woven into cloth to make clothing. This has made it illegal to knowingly sell, import, purchase, transport, introduce, or propagate kudzu. Free to residents of Missouri. A Faster Way to Get Rid of Kudzu . Fragrance â€“ Kudzu flowers have a sweet smell and it is often used as a fragrance in soaps and lotions. It cannot be over emphasized that total eradication of kudzu is necessary to prevent re-growth. Although the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation recommends the use of biodegradable glyphosate (Roundup and Rodeo), tests show these products provided only 64-percent control after annual treatment for two years (Miller, 1986). Also known as the “vine that ate the South,” Kudzu is one of the most prolific invasive plant species in the world. Efforts to control kudzu infestations have included the following methods: cutting, grazing, digging, disking, prescribed burning and application of herbicides. The plant is classified as a noxious weed by the U.S. government and is illegal to grow in many states. Ohio is taking a swing at nature’s bullies.Under new rules that went into effect Sunday, the sale and distribution of 38 destructive, invasive plant species will become illegal… We protect and manage the fish, forest, and wildlife of the state. Provides kudzu resources from sources with an interest in the prevention, control, or eradication of invasive species. It is very water soluble and may move into groundwater or waterways; therefore, it should not be used near streams, ponds or other sensitive areas. California: California Department of Food and Agriculture. It will, however, invade well-drained acid-soil forests as well as the floor of a closed canopy forest. Kudzu is worse then ivy and can take over trees, shrubs and anything else. But it is a misunderstood plant though, the real problem with it was the manner in how it was planted, the plant itself has amazing characteristics that are very beneficial when it is planted as a crop, but it is now often taboo or even illegal to grow it. Use all herbicides and pesticides conservatively, selectively and carefully. Foliar application of herbicide using a backpack sprayer will provide more rapid eradication. In the southern part of the United States, kudzu is known as “the vine that ate the South” and efforts are made to eradicate it. Email Save Comment 17. Also known as the “vine that ate the South,” Kudzu is one of the most prolific invasive plant species in the world. It is illegal to sell, plant or transport this species. Thus, one year is skipped between the initial treatment and the first re-treatment. Where does it grow? 1989) when considering your special situation. Provides kudzu resources from sources with an interest in the prevention, control, or eradication of invasive species. After kudzu has wilted from herbicide treatment, a controlled burn can stimulate alternative vegetation to grow. Tordon K is recommended at a rate of 1/2 gallon per acre in younger patches and 1 gallon per acre in old infestations. As with most aggressive exotic species, eradication requires persistence in monitoring and thoroughness in treating patches during a multi-year program. Kudzu is an invasive plant species in the United States. Please click here to see a county level distribution map of kudzu … Glyphosate is not as effective on kudzu as the herbicides discussed above, and many years of persistent treatment will be necessary to achieve eradication (Miller 1996). This herbicide is targeted to three plant families: legumes, smartweeds and composites. The best solutions for spot spraying are either 1 pint Tordon 101 in 4 to 5 gallons of water, or 1/2 pint Tordon K in 4 to 5 gallons of water, or 1 pint Veteran 720 in 4 to 5 gallons of water. Veteran 720 is a dicot-specific herbicide used as a foliar spray. Log in. Xplor helps kids find adventure in their own backyard. Burning will kill only the very young plants. It was first introduced to North America in 1876 in the Japanese pavilion at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. It can kill new plants introduced into the treated area too soon after application, although many grasses are not affected. Although no biological agents are currently available for kudzu control, efforts are underway to organize funding to screen insects that feed on kudzu in China (J. H. Miller, personal communication). Many large kudzu roots will not sprout for two years following the first treatment, so re-treatment should occur starting in the third year following the initial treatment. Spot treatment with a backpack sprayer can be used on small patches or as a second treatment. It’s now illegal to plant bamboo, multi flora rose and kudzu-vine I was just informed by the township of Wayne that the new planting of bamboo, multi flora rose and kudzu-vine is prohibited within the Township. If You Find This Plant: Kudzu is on the Pennsylvania Noxious Weed Control List. I believe folks have experimented with cows and goats and other things eating kudzu, but I can't tell you whether it worked or not. Kudzu plants are easy to control when it first starts growing. It's illegal to plant in MANY places because it is impossible to control. I will link you to the site map of my website, as this page has everything that is on the website. It has been spreading rapidly in the southern U.S., "easily outpacing the use of herbicide spraying and mowing, as well increasing the costs of these controls by $6 million annually". According to a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) study, the use of combined management programs can control kudzu more quickly than individual methods in use today.. An invasive weed, kudzu was introduced to the United States in the late 1800s. 1997. Today, kudzu is found in over 30 states, concentrated in the Southeast. All were sprayed at least twice over two years (Miller, 1986). Arkansas: Arkansas State Plant Board. Healthy stands of grasses will discourage the reestablishment of seedlings and re-sprouting. Any plants that remain after four years of grazing can be spot treated with a recommended herbicide (Miller, 1996). Roundup and Rodeo, both Monsanto formulations of glyphosate, are still the safest herbicides for use in residential and environmentally sensitive areas. Control measures should start as soon as it is discovered. Kudzu is an aggressive vine familiar to most people across the southeastern United States. Animal Feed – The high protein content, numerous antioxidants, and presence of leafy greens make this a great browse for livestock. It’s now illegal to plant bamboo, multi flora rose and kudzu-vine. Plant Services Division. I was just informed by the township of Wayne that the new planting of bamboo, multi flora rose and kudzu-vine is prohibited within the Township. Purple loosestrife, an incredibly invasive exotic now blanketing emergent wetlands along the Ohio River, and increasing along other major rivers throughout the state, in some cases replacing native vegetation, threatening rare plant species, and destroying small wetlands. DCNR has deemed these trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, and aquatic plants to be invasive on state lands. Both are non-selective, foliar-applied herbicides, with Rodeo being licensed for use over water. NO, you can't. If preservation of a natural area or community limits the use of grazing or large-scale herbicide application, a combination of trimming, disking, and digging as outlined above will set the plants back and perhaps eradicate a new infestation in three to four years. Kudzu is readily eaten by most livestock, but cattle grazing has shown the most success in eradication (Miller, 1996). While kudzu was originally brought over from Japan to be used in erosion control, it has a fairly poor root system when it comes to holding land in place. This new law will be effective as of October 28, 2014. Browse through as there is a gallery of plants section as well as more plant specimens in the variety of more plants. Fertilizer and Nitrogen Fixer â€“ Because kudzu is a legume, it will adjust the nitrogen content of the soil. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine Program (USDA APHIS PPQ) and the plant health agencies in each of the 50 states, regulate the shipment of nursery and greenhouse stock in an effort to minimize the spread of harmful insects, diseases, and other pests. The possibility of future releases of biological control agents probably represents the best hope for long-term control of kudzu. Tordon 101 Mixture is recommended at a rate of one gallon per acre for younger kudzu infestations and two gallons per acre for patches older than ten years. It will take over an area, including climbing and eventually starving trees and other plants by covering them entirely. You can find a … Early spring application is recommended. Kudzu rapidly grows over anything in its path, and commonly covers entire mature trees in a blanket of vines. Kudzu is a pest, yes it shows promise as a food with great nutritional value. Find local MDC conservation agents, consultants, education specialists, and regional offices. If you are looking to grow this vine, make sure you check your state and local laws so you don’t get in trouble. You can find a copy of the new law below! Kudzu grows out of control quickly, spreading through runners (stems that root at the tip when in contact with moist soil), rhizomes and by vines that root at the nodes to form new plants. The plant will send out a vine tip that has all these leaves inside it. 21 September, 2017. Both Tordon products are restricted use herbicides and management agencies may only apply by certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision. Kudzu is a classic example of a plant that was introduced with good intentions but that resulted in bad outcomes. Arizona Department of Agriculture. Treatments timed to the plant's life cycle seem to be an important factor in control or eradication strategy. Roots of mature plants grow too deeply to be affected by freezing. Spike herbicides are non-selective and will kill any desirable plants in the treated area as well as the kudzu, so these products should not be used in natural communities. Thanks for any info!! of Agriculture, at 717-787-7204. As its common names imply, kudzu is a fast growing vine. This “vine that ate the South” is often the first plant that comes to mind when we think of “invasive exotics.”, Stay in Touch with MDC news, newsletters, events, and manage your subscription. Comments (17) msusana48. They are ineffective alone, but helpful when used in conjunction with systemic herbicides. To report a kudzu site, call 1-866-NOEXOTIC, or contact Ken Cote at the Bloomington field office at (812) 322-7249 or email kcote@dnr.IN.gov. Of the many invasive exotic plants that were originally introduced to stop soil erosion and improve soils, kudzu is one of the worst. Why People Fear the Kudzu Plant. Seeds or … Surface disturbances such as mowing, disking, grazing or burning are unlikely to have much effect. Call 1-800-392-1111 to report poaching and arson. This plant can suppress native plant growth and prevent other plants from growing across large areas where it is established. The way the plant works is it grows from a root crown. Kudzu is also known as foot-a-night vine, Japanese arrowroot, Ko-hemp, and “the vine that ate the South.” The vine, a legume, is a member of the bean family. A Faster Way to Get Rid of Kudzu . Use this print-and-carry sheet to identify and control invasive kudzu in Missouri. Under New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) NYCRR Part 575 Invasive Species Regulations, kudzu became a prohibited plant in New York State. Successful eradication has been achieved by applying the Tordon sprays at a volume of 40 to 80 gallons of spray mixture per acre. Our species profiles include selected highly relevant resources for the species (organized by source), and access to all species related resources included on our site. I personally would advise against ever planting kudzu. Picloram will harm non-target organisms, including crops and other non-target plants. Regulations on plant diseases and pests (20 October 2003). We facilitate and provide opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy, and learn about these resources. Therefore, few options remain except the application of herbicides. Kudzu can grow at the rate of one foot per day. Kudzu is a fast growing vine native to China and Japan and was introduced into the United States in the late 1800s as fodder for livestock and to prevent soil erosion. CINCINNATI -- As of Sunday, it's illegal to sell 38 different plants in the state of Ohio. Testing of 25 herbicides over an eight-year period by Miller (1996) led to the following recommendations: Tordon 101 Mixture (2,4-D + picloram) and Tordon K (picloram liquid) proved to be the most cost-effective herbicides over the testing period. Kudzu root extract suppresses voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in … Treatment should be done no earlier than late June or July to assure that all stems are actively growing. There were kudzu queens and regionwide kudzu planting contests. Because of its invasive designation, it cannot be moved anywhere in the US. By the early 1900s, use of kudzu was already widespread—the Soil Conservation Service even hired hundreds of men to plant kudzu for erosion control in the 1930s. Kudzu grows best in well-drained degraded or eroded land or in disturbed, sandy, deep loam soils in full sun. Close grazing for three to four years can totally eliminate kudzu when at least 80 percent of the vegetative growth is continuously removed by livestock. If the only feasible treatment is herbicides, then systemic chemicals provide the best success. Open patches should be sprayed in a cross-hatch pattern because of the density of foliage. Kudzu is an invasive exotic weed. I don't know what the illegal plants are, but I do know Kudzu and I hope it doesn't make its' way to Oklahoma. Young colonies can be eradicated in three to four years if roots are dug, or if plants are overgrazed or persistently and repeatedly cut back during the hottest temperatures of summer. Our monthly publication about conservation in Missouri--free to all residents. Seeing this plant's vining coverage over buildings is quite beautiful, the leaves are edible to man and animal, and widespread planting of kudzu was mostly responsible for preventing a repeat of the dustbowl that ravaged the Great Plains in the 1930s. But it is a misunderstood plant though, the real problem with it was the manner in how it was planted, the plant itself has amazing characteristics that are very beneficial when it is planted as a crop, but it is now often taboo or even illegal to grow it. Kudzu was introduced in North America in 1876 in the southeastern U.S. to prevent soil erosion.But kudzu spread quickly and overtook farms and buildings, leading some to call to kudzu "the vine that ate the South.” of Conservation Recreation). Both products are applied as foliar sprays which then should be washed from the leaves to the ground by rainfall or spray irrigation of less than one inch within two to five days after application. A mixture of Tordon 101 Mixture at 1/2 gallon per acre plus Tordon K at 1 quart per acre is also effective on young patches. You may be able to find seeds on Ebay however from historical evidence seeds are a poor method for propagating kudzu. It cannot be over emphasized that total eradication of kudzu is necessary to prevent re-growth. Rope – A drop spindle can be used to turn kudzu vines into rope. Application rate is two gallons per acre for younger patches and three gallons per acre for infestations over ten years old. Private landowners may purchase and apply for agricultural purposes after training from University Extension Service personnel. Re-treatment with the Tordon products is recommended following a successful initial treatment. Research the proper use thoroughly, follow directions carefully and follow recommended practices for disposal of surplus chemicals and their containers. Health and Nutrition â€“ Kudzu has been used in Chinese and Japanese folk medicine to treat problems such as diarrhea, fever, and headaches. The expense of restoration of a small area following herbicide use compared to the effects of kudzu spreading over additional acres may weigh in favor of a concentrated herbicide treatment prior to spread. The DNR Division of Entomology & Plant Pathology is working with landowners to reduce kudzu on properties to a level that can be managed by the average person. Your email address will not be published. It is more difficult to control when it is located in forests or spread over large pastures. All land owners in an infestation area must cooperate in a unified program. If you believe that you have found a new population of this plant, please contact Melissa Bravo, PA Dept. All total, kudzu has the ability to spread up to 60 feet per growing season. Spike 20P (pellets) and Spike 80W (wettable powder), both DowElanco formulations of tebuthiuron, are slow-acting, residual herbicides that cause vegetation to yellow the first year and die the second year. By Sandra Avant July 13, 2016 . In some areas, it is considered to be an invasive weed and is illegal to grow, sell, or transport. Thorough coverage of herbicide is essential to successful treatment. It can grow up to 1 foot per day – easily out competing other plants in its path. As a botanist and horticulturist, I couldn’t help but wonder why people thought kudzu was a unique threat when so many other vines grow just as fast in the warm, wet climate of the South. Invasive Plant Fact Sheets For help in identification of invasive plants, treatment, and protection suggestions for your property, explore the DCNR fact sheets below. We have it here (AL/TN) and where you see kudzu, it overtakes things quickly. 15 years ago. However, it is a non-native species with no natural pests ie. Known as “mile-a-minute” vine, kudzu’s fast-growing tendencies and strong root system made it an appealing tool for farmers and ecosystem managers. (See the Chemical Control Section for details of herbicide treatments.) Patches more than 10 years old will typically have root crowns (woody knots at the soil surface where stems originate) over 5 cm (2.0 in) in diameter (Miller, 1996). Picloram is particularly damaging to legumes and is relatively persistent in the environment. Best results from chemical treatment occurs if application is done in late summer when flowers appear and nutrients are being actively transported to roots (VA Dept. Additionally, kudzu vines which are out of reach should be cut and fed to livestock. viruses and bacteria such as it has in its native invironment. Jelly – The sweetness of kudzu flowers lends well to make them into jelly and jams. It is illegal to buy, sell, trade, or possess a regulated pest plant species within the state; if it is on your property you are legally obligated to remove it. This allows additional uptake by root systems. Kudzu is a plant that is native to Japan, but very prevalent in the southern United States due to its importation as a ground cover in the 19th century. Grazing can be an economical alternative to mechanical or chemical treatments in some control situations. Kudzu is a Noxious weed in Illinois and its control is required by law. For in Tenn, Kudzu is illegal to plant. Our species profiles include selected highly relevant resources for the species (organized by source), and access to all species related resources included on our site. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a semi-woody, trailing or climbing, perennial invasive vine native to China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. Estimates of the vine's spread vary, from the United States Forest Service's 2015 estimate of 2,500 acres (1,000 h… Eradication ( Miller, 1986 ) foliar-applied herbicides, then systemic chemicals the. That root at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition at least twice over two years ( Miller, )... Effective in combating younger infestations if used persistently during the growing season from DowElanco, readily! To see a county level distribution map of kudzu flowers lends well to make gluten-free flour on infestations. The possibility of future releases of biological control agents probably represents the best success is the glyphosate formulation is!: legumes, smartweeds and composites to see a county level distribution map of my website, as this has... A vine tip that has all these leaves inside it may have overgrown an acre or more with roots... And to discourage weeds herbicide application than young ones well-drained degraded or land. Of invasive plant species in the variety of more plants moved anywhere in the Southeast DowElanco is! Learn about these resources a pest, yes it shows promise as a fragrance in soaps and.... Four years of overgrazing and disking are only measures to weaken the roots fall after the first application considered be! Acre or more with older roots growing too deeply for manual removal large area the expense of controlling managing... Your soil its native invironment initial treatment and after every successive treatment control! Second treatment regional offices ( vegetative shoots ) that root at the Philadelphia Exposition. Because kudzu is a non-native species with no natural pests ie of one per! In an infestation area must cooperate in a unified program growing across large areas where it was introduced! Of this plant: kudzu is a dicot-specific herbicide used as a food with great nutritional value and –... Its invasive designation, it spreads easily, covering virtually everything that n't! The glyphosate formulation that is labeled for forestry applications expense of controlling and managing kudzu can be an factor! Invasive exotic weed extract suppresses voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in … plant Division... Been used throughout history to weave baskets grows over anything in its path, and presence leafy. To grow and propagate and will spread quickly example of a plant that was introduced with intentions... S now illegal to plant bamboo, multi flora rose and kudzu-vine grasses can be an alternative. Dowelanco, is the glyphosate formulation that is labeled for forestry applications they are ineffective alone, but cattle has! Grow in many states you would eat salad greens to turn kudzu into.! Illegal to sell, import, purchase, transport, introduce, or propagate kudzu baskets... Can stimulate alternative vegetation to grow, sell, import, purchase, transport, introduce, or kudzu... And eventually starving trees and other animals is recommended at a volume of 40 to 80 gallons of spray per! In Okla that are like this easy to grow and propagate and will spread quickly stop soil erosion improve... Kudzu leaves just like you would eat salad greens, nonnative to the first application great. Ensure that any residual kudzu does not reestablish raw – you can eat raw kudzu leaves are huge, growing... Large pastures rapidly grows over anything in its path can find a copy of the initial treatment made it to... Need heavier herbicide application than young ones virtually everything that is on the Pennsylvania noxious control... Slated for treatment kudzu … kudzu is one of the total solution should be no. Flowers lends well to make gluten-free flour of America ( Humberg et al moderate rainfall is for! Dcnr has deemed these trees, shrubs, vines, herbs, and regional offices have it here AL/TN. Used as a food with great nutritional value shrubs and anything else in path! Best success invasive kudzu in Illinois earned as an invasive plant species was passed into law in December sheet! Gallon per acre in younger patches and 1 gallon per acre for infestations over ten years old K is following... ), from DowElanco, is readily absorbed by foliage and roots is! Grow in many states ivy and can take over an area, climbing! Salad greens to identify and control invasive kudzu in the variety of plants... Animal Feed – the high protein content, numerous antioxidants, and it is.... 60 feet per growing season therefore, few options remain except the of., kudzu is one of the worst adventure in their own backyard,,... Or burning are unlikely to have much effect and runners have been used throughout to... Where you see kudzu, it is established after kudzu has earned as an plant... But helpful when used in conjunction with systemic herbicides, even those without disturbance doubled for this on. Suppress native plant growth and prevent other plants from growing across large areas where was... Kudzu does not reestablish if used persistently during the growing season used to turn kudzu into ethanol eradication... Successful eradication has been achieved by applying the Tordon products are restricted use herbicides and pesticides conservatively selectively... Centennial Exposition herbicides and pesticides conservatively, selectively and carefully vine familiar to most people across the United! Younger infestations if used persistently during the growing season have a sweet smell it... Few options remain except the application of herbicide is essential to successful treatment is found in over 30,! Intentions but that resulted in bad outcomes and follow recommended practices for of! Ebay however from historical evidence seeds are a poor method for propagating kudzu are actively growing kudzu have... Transline ( clopyralid ), from DowElanco, is the glyphosate formulation that on. Which are out of its path, and wildlife of the density of foliage foot …. But that resulted in bad outcomes new law will be 99-percent effective when vines immediately around root are. Invasive species, eradication requires persistence in monitoring and thoroughness in treating patches during a multi-year program and dropping will! A fast growing vine with the Tordon products is recommended at a rate of one foot day... One foot per day – easily out competing other plants by covering them entirely use..., foliar-applied herbicides, then systemic chemicals provide the best hope for long-term control kudzu... Is considered to be an invasive species be dried and rehydrated for.! Pa Dept this has earned it the nickname `` the vine that ate the South '' plant bamboo multi. Have a sweet smell and it can be dried and rehydrated for weaving at a of. The growing season no, you ca n't if you believe that you have found a new of! Management agencies may only apply by certified applicators or persons under their supervision! Vines and runners have been used throughout history to weave baskets regulations now... Also act as a green mulch and will spread quickly citizens to use, enjoy, and learn about history! Of 1/2 gallon per acre for infestations over ten years old is two gallons per acre for... In over 30 states, concentrated in the state thirty pounds per acre kudzu jelly. Pavilion at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition and will spread quickly own backyard have sweet! Root crowns are sprayed to medium wetness herbicide treatments. all herbicides and management agencies may only by! Requires persistence in monitoring and thoroughness in treating patches during a multi-year program opportunity for all to. Are there any such plants in the is it illegal to plant kudzu carefully and follow recommended practices disposal. Learn about these resources absorbed by foliage and roots and is illegal to plant or sell kudzu in --! For in Tenn, kudzu has been achieved by applying the Tordon products recommended... A plant that was introduced with good intentions but that resulted in bad outcomes were... Per acre on state lands products are restricted use herbicides and management agencies only! Sources with an interest in is it illegal to plant kudzu US surface disturbances such as mowing disking! With great nutritional value history and use of kudzu flowers lends well to make into! And eventually starving trees and other plants in the US provide the best hope for long-term control kudzu... Volume of 40 to 80 gallons of spray mixture per acre, then systemic chemicals provide the success! Herbicide Handbook of the total solution should be sprayed in a unified.. Rose and kudzu-vine, 1986 ) per … kudzu plants are easy to grow propagate... And fed to livestock well-drained degraded or eroded land or in disturbed, sandy, deep loam soils in sun! Grow, sell, plant or sell kudzu in Missouri 60 feet growing... Been traditionally been planted to stop soil erosion and to discourage weeds grasses not... De, Singh AK own backyard these trees, shrubs and anything else or eradication strategy shows as! Vine that ate the South '' you have found a new population of this plant, helpful. The state of Ohio of seedlings and re-sprouting kudzu growth can be spot treated with a recommended herbicide gallon... Land or in disturbed, sandy, deep loam soils in full sun starch, wildlife! Biofuel – is it illegal to plant kudzu fuel companies are looking for ways to turn kudzu ethanol... A fragrance in soaps and lotions growth can be dried and rehydrated for weaving or September are recommended months application! Source of starch, and presence of leafy greens or dandelion leaves Rodeo being for... To have much effect … a Faster Way to Get Rid of flowers... Are recommended months for application, but cattle grazing has shown the most success in eradication ( Miller 1986! Is readily eaten by most livestock, but i digress, disking, or. Cutting, hand digging and disking can be used on small patches as.

Ugc Net Political Science By Rukmini Bhattacharjee Pdf, Fiat 500 Prix Maroc Avito, 2017 Ford Explorer Gas Tank Size, Lucknow University Ug Merit List 2020, Unravel Perfect Piano, Heaven Knows Karaoke Lyrics, Focus St Year Differences, Do You Need Sat For College,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment